Prevention

 
   Primary prevention  Secondary prevention  Tertiary prevention
Time of intervention notable risk
factors
 early stage
of condition
 after acute
treatment

 Target group

 risk groups  patients  individuals in rehabilitation
 Aims  to influence behaviour and risk factors   to identify and influence illness triggers  to prevent sequelae
Intervention orientation  preventive approach corrective approach  compensatory approach
 Title  primary prevention  secondary prevention, early treatment  tertiary prevention, rehabilitation
     
  According to Schwarz1), prevention (lat.: praevenire - to anticipate) means the prevention of illness and the attempt to carry out targeted activities to avoid, make less probable or delay, harm to one's health. In German-speaking countries, one differentiates between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. These distinctions refer to modes of intervention and are mainly defined pursuant to the primary objectives of the respective intervention. These effectively form a phenomenological continuum with regard to how one deals with illness.
Primary prevention encompasses all activities which can be carried out to avoid triggers to potential illness before any biological damage has occurred.
Secondary prevention encompasses all measures used to identify early, symptomless clinical stages of an illness - as well as effective early treatment. Over the last few years, preventing the recurrence of an illness has also been defined as part of secondary prevention.
Effective treatment of a symptomatic illness, with the aim of preventing aggravation or permanent loss of function, lies within the scope of tertiary prevention.
The objective in terms of health care policy and public interest is to reduce the number of new illnesses (incidence) on the one hand, and to maintain independence and self sufficiency on the other. This means that the health care authorities must increase their investments in preventive measures in order to support affected individuals and to achieve macroeconomic savings.
The Austrian Pressure Ulcer Prevention Association, APUPA, actively pursues a preventive programme through educational measures, professional consulting and the provision of specialist know how.
 
     
  1) SCHWARTZ F.W. et al. (2003): Das Public Health Buch. Gesundheit und Gesundheitswesen. München,
   Jena, Urban und Fischer Verlag
 
     
     
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